Nutritional Evaluation of Complementary Foods Produced From Malted White Maize and Soy Concentrate Blends

  • A.V. Ikujenlola Department of Food Science and Technology Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife
  • S.O. Oguntuase Department of Food Science and Technology Federal University of Technology, Akure
Keywords: Complementary foods, maize, soyconcentrate, malted, biological assessment, , protein efficiency ratio


Complementary foods are foods given to infant in addition to breastmilk as from  the 4-6th  month of age. White maize grains were malted to produce malted maize flour.Soybean seeds were processed into soyconcentrate. The resulting flours were formulated at the ratio of 70:30 (maize product : soybean product) for complementary foods' production.The resulting complementary foods were assessed for proximate composition and protein quality assessment using animals feeding experiment . The results showed that protein content of the processed maize increased with soyconcentrate supplementation. The protein contents (18.10 - 25.30%) of the supplemented diets were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the commercial diet (control) (15.00%).There was no significant difference (p >0.05) between the proximate parameters of processed maize supplemented with similar additives. The malted maize based diet gave better growth and high Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and food efficiency ratio than the unmalted maize diets. The PER ranged between 1.46 and 2.38 for all the formulated diets. The biological value,true digestibility and net protein utilization  were of higher values with respect to the supplemented diets and compared favourably with the commercial diet and casein. The malted maize and soyconcentrate blend is superior (p<0.05) to the commercial diet (control) diet.The blend of malted maize and soyconcentrate could be produced by mothers and caregivers; fed to infants in order to reduce the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition in the developing countries.

Author Biographies

A.V. Ikujenlola, Department of Food Science and Technology Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife

Department of Food Science and Technology

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife

S.O. Oguntuase, Department of Food Science and Technology Federal University of Technology, Akure

Department of Food Science and Technology

Federal University of Technology, Akure


A.O.A.C., Official Methods of Analysis 15th Edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Washington D.C.,1990.
Adelekan, D.A., Childhood Nutrition and Malnutrition in Nigeria. The International Journal of Applied and Basic Nutritional Science,19, Issue 2:179-181, 2003.
Akingbala, J.O., Rooney, L.W. and Faubion, M.A., Laboratory Procedure for the Preparation of Ogi- a Nigerian Fermented. Journal of Food Science, 46:1523-1526,1981.
Alika, J.E., Statistics and Research methods. Ambik Press Benin City, First edition. 1-103,1997.
Anigo, K. M., Ameh, D. A., Ibrahim, S. and Danbauchi, S. S., Nutrient composition of complementary food gruels formulated from malted cereals, soy beans and groundnut for use in North-western Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 4 (3) 65-72, Available online, 2010.
Brown, K.H., Appropriate diets for the rehabilitation of malnourished children in the community setting. Acta Paediatric Scand., 374:151-159,1991.
Dahiya, S. and Kapoor, A.C., Biological evaluation of protein quality of home processed supplementary foods for pre- school children. Food Chemistry, 48 : 183 - 188,1993.
Desikachar, H.S.R.,Development of Weaning foods with high caloric density and low hot paste viscosity using traditional technology. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2 (4):21-23,1980.
FAO,Guidelines for Development of Supplementary Foods for Older Infants and Young Children. Report of the 14th session of the codex committee on Foods for special Dietary Uses: Appendix 12, 1985.
FAO/WHO/UNU, Energy and Protein requirements. Reports of a joint FAO/WHO.UNU Expert consultation World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 724:86-98,1991.
Fashakin, J.B. and Unokiwedi, C.C.,Nutritional Evaluation of Warankasi and Wara egusi prepared from cow milk partially substituted with melon milk. Nigerian Food Journal, 2: 128 -134,1993.
Ghasemzadeh, R. and Ghavidel,R. A., Processing and assesment of quality charactristic of cereals - legumes composite weaning foods . 2011 International Conference on Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. IPCBEE IACSIT Press, Singapore,5 :1-3,2011.
Gupta, C. and Sehgal, S., Protein quality of developed home made weaning foods. Plant Foods Human Nutrition, 42: 239 –246,1992.
Hofvander, Y. and Underwood, B.A.,Processed supplementary foods for older infants and young children, with special reference to developing countries. Food and Bulletin, 9:(1) 1-1,1987.
Hotz ,C. and Gibson, R.S.,Traditional Food Processing and Preparation practices to enhance the Bioavailability of micro-nutrients in plants- diets. The Journal of Nutrition, 137:1097-1100, 2007.
Ihekoronye, A.I. and Ngoddy, P.O., Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. Macmillan Publishing Co. London, 253-257,1985.
Ikujenlola, A. V.,Quality Evaluation of weaning food Produced from Malted cowpea and rice blends. Knowledge Review, 8 (1):83-87, 2004.
Ikujenlola, A.V. and Fashakin, J.B.,Bioassay assessment of a complementary diet prepared from vegetable proteins. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, Finland, 3(3): 23-26, 2005.
Ikujenlola, A.V.,The effects of malting and fermentation on the nutritional qualities of complementary produced from maize varieties and soy bean grains. Ph.D Thesis Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 2010.
Ikpeme-Emmanuel, C. A., Okoi, J. and Osuchukwu, N. C., Functional, anti-nutritional and sensory acceptability of taro and soybean based weaning food. African Journal of Food Science, Available online Accessed on March 12, 2012, 3(11) 372-377,2009.
Inyang, C.U. and Idoko, C.A.,Assessment of the quality of “Ogi” made from malted millet. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5: 2334 – 2337,2006.
Iwe, M.O., The Science and Technology of Soybean: Chemistry, Nutrition, Processing and Utilization. 1st edn. Rojoint Communication Services Ltd. Enugu, Nigeria. 115-116, 2003.
Malleshi, N.G.,Daodu,M.A. and Chandrasekar,A., Development of weaning Food formulations based on malting and roller drying of sorghum and cowpea. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., 24: 511-519, 1989.
Marero, L.M., Payumo, E.M., Lirando, E.C. Larez, W.N., Gopez, M.D. and Horma, S.,Technology of Weaning food formulation prepared from germinated cereals and legumes. Journal of Food Science, 53: 1391-1398, 1988.
Obayanju, V.S. and Ikujenlola, A.V.,Formulation and Nutritional Assessment of Weaning food from soy bean and Acha. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 10 (2): 22-27,2002.
Ojofeitimi, E.O., Abiose, S.H., Ijadunola, R.T., Pedro, T. and Jinadu, M.K.,Modification and Improvement of Nutritive quality of corn pap Ogi’ with cowpea and groundnut milk, Nutrition and Health, 15:47-53,2001.
Onuorah, C.E. and Akinjide, F.A., Comparative Evaluation of four formulated weaning foods and a commercial product. Nigerian Food Journal, 22: 48-53, 2004.
Owolabi, A.O., Ndidi, U.S., James, B.D. and Amune, F.A., Proximate, Antinutrient and Mineral Composition of Five Varieties ( Improved and Local) of Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), Commonly Consumed in Samaru Community, Zaria-Nigeria, Asian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4(2): 70-72, 2012.
PAG, Protein Advisory Groups of the United Nations Guideline No 8, New York, 1-7,1971.
Sajilata, G., Rekha, S., Singhal, O. and Kulkarni, P.R., Weaning Foods A review of the Indian Experience, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 23 (2): 208-226,2002 .
Wardlaw, G. M., Contemporary Nutrition Issues and Insights. 4th ed. McGraw. Hall Higher Education, USA,450-475, 2000.
W.H.O.,Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries. A review of current scientific knowledge. Available at: publications/ infantfeeding/ WHO. NUT. 98.1/en/index.html. Accessed 29 June 2009.1998.
How to Cite
Ikujenlola, A., & Oguntuase, S. (2012). Nutritional Evaluation of Complementary Foods Produced From Malted White Maize and Soy Concentrate Blends. Ife Journal of Technology, 21(2), 25-29. Retrieved from