Carbon Loss in Chicken Litter Compost As Affected By Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio and Turning Frequency
Raw chicken manure was co-composted with sawdust in turned-windrow piles to study the effects of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio and turning frequency (TF) on the loss of total carbon (C) during composting. Three levels of C:N ratio (20:1, 25:1 and 30:1) and TF (2, 4 and 6 days) were experimented in a two-factor completely randomized block design. During the composting process, temperature, pH, moisture content (MC), total C, phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and nitrogen (N), dry matter (DM) and C:N ratio were monitored. Also, MC of the piles was periodically replenished to 55%. The results showed that both C:N ratio and TF had significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on temperature, pH, total N, C, P and K losses and C:N ratio of the piles while only C:N ratio affected (p ≤ 0.05) DM losses. It was observed that moisture loss increased as C:N ratio and TF increased. The decline of pile temperatures to near ambient temperature occurred at about 87 days in all treatments. The final total C losses ranged between 63.1 and 83.8%, with 65.2-97.1% occurring within the first six weeks when the pile temperatures and pH values were above 33 oC and 7.7, respectively. The total C losses were largely attributed to organic matter degradation and increased as C:N ratio and TF increased. The combined effects of C:N ratio and TF showed that treatment with 6 days TF and C:N ratio of 20:1 had the minimum total C loss (63.1%).
Bernal, M.P., Sanchez–Monedero, M.A., Paredes, C. and Roig, A. “Carbon mineralization from organic wastes at different composting stages during their incubation with soil”. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 69(3): 175-189, 1998.
Brake, J.D. “A practical guide for composting poultry litter”. MAFES Bulletin 981, 1992.
Bremner, J.M. “Nitrogen-total”. In: Sparks DL, editors. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3-Chemical methods. SSSA Inc., ASA Inc., Madison, WI, USA: 1085-1122, 1996.
Campbell, A.G., Folk, R.L. and Tripepi, R. “Wood ash as an amendment in municipal sludge and yard waste composting processes”. Compost Science and Utilization 5, 62-73, 1997.
Figure 2: Changes in total C losses of composting piles with (a) C:N 20:1, (b) C:N 25:1, and (c) C:N 30:1. Error bars show standard errors of means (n = 3).
Charest, M.H. and Beauchamp, C.J. “Composting of de-inking paper sludge with poultry manure at three nitrogen levels using mechanical turning: behaviour of physico-chemical parameters”. Bioresource Technology 81: 7-17, 2002.
Diaz, M.J., Madejon, E., Ariza, J., Lopez, R. and Cabrera, F. “Co-composting of beet vinasse and grape marc in windrows and static pile system”. Compost Science and Utilization 10(3): 258-269, 2002.
Eghball, B. “Composting manure and other organic residues”. Cooperative Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1997.
Eghball, B., Power, J.F., Gilley, J.E. and Doran, J.W. “Nutrient, carbon and mass loss during composting of beef cattle feedlot manure”. Journal of Environmental Quality 26: 189-193, 1997.
Fang, M., Wong, J.W.C., Ma, K.K. and Wong, M.H. “Co-composting of sewage sludge and coal ash: nutrient transformation”. Bioresource Technology 67: 19-24, 1999.
Gracia-Gomez, A., Roig, A. and Bernal, M.P. “Composting of the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater with olive leaves: organic matter degradation and biological activity”. Bioresource Technology 86(1): 59-64, 2003.
Hansen, R.C., Keener, H.M. and Hoitink, H.A.J. “Poultry manure composting–An exploratory study”. Transactions of the ASAE 36: 2151–2157, 1989.
Haug, R.T. “The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering”. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1993.
Huang, G.F., Wong, J.W.C., Wu, Q.T. and Nagar, B.B. “Effect of C/N on composting of pig manure with sawdust”. Waste Management 24: 805-813, 2004.
Hynes, E. “Gardening”. Microsoft® Student 2008 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.
Kithome, M., Paul, J.W. and Bomke, A.A. “Reducing nitrogen losses during simulated composting of poultry manure using adsorbents or chemical amendments”. Journal of Environmental Quality 28: 194–201, 1999.
Mercer, W.A. and Rose, W.W. “Investigation of windrow composting as a means for disposal of fruit waste solid”. National Canners Association Research Foundation, Washington, DC: 20036, 1968
Michel, F.C., Forney, L.J., Huang, A.J.F., Drew, S., Czu Prenski, M., Lindeberg, J.D., Reddy, C.A. “Effects of turning frequency, leaves to grass mix ratio and windrow vs pile configuration on the composting of yard trimmings”. Compost Science and Utilization 4: 26-43, 1996.
Misra, R.V., Roy, R.N. and Hiraoka, H. “On-farm composting methods”. FAO Corporate Document Repository, 2003.
Ogunwande, G.A., Osunade, J.A., Adekalu, K.O. and Ogunjimi, L.A.O. “Nitrogen loss in chicken compost as affected by carbon to nitrogen ratio and turning frequency”. Bioresource Technology 99(16): 7495-7503, 2008.
Paredes, C., Roig, A., Bernal, M.P., Sanchez-Mondero, M.A. and Cegarra, J. “Evolution of organic matter and nitrogen during co-composting of olive mill wastewater with solid organic wastes”. Biology Fert. Soils 32(3): 222-227, 2000.
Rynk, R., van de Kamp, M., Wilson, G.B., Singley, M.E., Richard, T.L., Kolega, J.J., Gouin, F.R., Laliberty, L., Kay, JrD., Murphy, D.W., Hoitink, H.A.J. and Brinton, W.F. “On-farm composting”. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Services, Ithaca, New York, 1992.
Sanchez-Monedero, M.A., Bernal, M.P., Roig, A., Cegarra, J. and Garcia, D. “The effectiveness of the Rutgers system and the addition of bulking agent in reducing N-losses during composting”. In: Van Cleemput O, Hofman G, Vermoesen A, editors. Progress in nitrogen cycling studies. Dordretch: Kluwer Academic: 133-139, 1996.
SAS. “Statistical Analysis Software Guide for Personal Computers”. Release 9.1 SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC 27513, USA, 2002.
Tiquia, S.M. “Further composting of pig manure disposed from the pig-on-litter (POL) system in Hong Kong”. Ph.D. Thesis. The University of Hong Kong Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, 1996.
Tiquia, S.M. and Tam, N.F.Y. “Fate of nitrogen during composting of chicken litter”. Environmental Pollution 110: 535-541, 2000.
Tiquia, S.M., Richard, T.L. and Honeyman, M.S. “Effects of windrow turning and seasonal temperatures on composting of hog manure from hoop structures”. Environmental Technology 21(9): 1037-1046, 2000.
Tiquia, S.M., Tam, N.F.Y. and Hodgkiss, I.J. “Changes in chemical properties during composting of spent litter at different moisture contents”. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 67(1): 79-89, 1998.
Tiquia, S.M., Tam, N.F.Y. and Hodgkiss, I.J. “Effects of turning frequency on composting of spent pig-manure sawdust litter”. Bioresource Technology 62: 37-42, 1997.
Tuomela, M., Vikman, M., Hatakka, A. and Itavaara, M. “Biodegradation of lignin in a compost environment: A review. Bioresource Technology 72(2): 169-183, 2000.
Wong, J.W.C., Mak, K.F., Chan, N.W., Lam, A., Fang, M., Zhou, L.X., Wu, Q.T. and Liao, X.D. “Co-composting of soybean residues and leaves in Hong Kong”. Bioresource Technology 76(2): 99-106, 2001.
Zhang, R., Ishibashi, K. and Day, D.L. “Experimental study of microbial decomposition in liquid swine manure, and generation rates of ammonia”. In: Proc. Livestock Waste Management Conference. ASAE St. Joseph, Michigan, 1991.