Influence of Poultry Manure Incorporation on Changes in Selected Physical Properties of an Alfisol during Drying
Changes in the physical properties during the drying of soil as affected by incorporation of different levels of poultry waste were investigated on an alfisol under fallow at the Teaching and Research Farm of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria. Bulk surface soil (0 – 15 cm depth) was air-dried and crushed to pass through a 4 mm mesh sieve, then moistened to 0.18 g g-1 moisture before mixing with poultry waste at different rates of 0, 40 and 80 g kg-1. Pre-determined quantities of soil were packed in cylindrical cores 76 mm in height and 36 mm in diameter to achieve a pre-determined dry density of 1.93 g cm-3. Batches of the soil samples were prepared in replicates for each rate of poultry waste mixture and subjected to drying regimes in the laboratory. At different drying regimes, replicates of the soil samples were subjected to axial compression at the strain rate of 2 mm min-1 until failure occurred. The shrinkage index (ΔV) of the soil samples was also determined as the difference between the initial sample volume at preparation and the final sample volume after drying. The soil dry density (d) increased gradually with degree of drying, attaining a maximum value within the decreasing moisture content range 0.14 – 0.10 g g-1 and then subsequently decreasing gradually. The porosity (n) of the soil expectedly followed an inverse trend as d. The rate of poultry waste incorporation, however, had no significant effect on n and d. Poultry waste addition increased the soil’s unconfined compressive strength (UCS) implying that poultry waste enhances the integrity of soil aggregates when subjected to stress. The soil’s UCS also increased as the soil progressively dried out. A strong negative relationship (0.83 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.98) was obtained between soil moisture content and the shrinkage index (ΔV). The strength of the relationship however decreases with increased rate of poultry waste addition implying that poultry waste reduces the dependence of ΔV on moisture content. In general, the results indicate that poultry waste incorporation enhances the maintenance of the integrity of soil aggregates under compressive loads thereby improving the workability of the soil. Drying also increased the compressive strength of the soil.
Arvidsson, J. “Influence of soil texture and organic matter content on bulk density, air content, compression index and crop yield in field and laboratory compression experiment”. Soil Tillage Res. 49: 159 – 170, 1998.
Ayers, P.D. and Perumperal, J.V. “Moisture and density effect on cone index”. Trans. ASAE 25: 169 – 172, 1982.
Blair, N. “Impact of cultivation and sugar-cane green trash management on carbon fractions and aggregate stability for a Chromic Luvisol in Queensland, Australia”. Soil Tillage Res. 55: 183-191, 2000.
Bishop, A.W. and Henkel, D.J. “The Measurement of Soil Properties in the Triaxial Test”. Arnold, London, 228 pp., 1962.
Cannell, R.Q. and Hawes, J.D. “Trends in tillage practices in relation to sustainable crop production with special reference to temperate climates”. Soil Tillage Res. 30: 245-282, 1994.
Carter, M.R. “A review of conservation tillage strategies for humid temperate regions”. Soil Tillage Res. 31: 289-301, 1994.
Cassel, D.K. and Wagger, M.G. “Residue management for irrigated maize grain and silage production”. Soil Tillage Res. 39: 101-114, 1996.
Causarano, H. “Factors affecting the tensile strength of soil aggregates”. Soil Tillage Res. 28: 15-25, 1993.
Chaney, K. and Swift, R.S. “The influence of organic matter on aggregate stability in some British soils”. J. Soil Sci. 35: 223 – 230, 1984.
Craig, R.F. “Soil Mechanics”. 3rd Edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold (UK) Co. Ltd., 1983.
Dutartre, P., Bartoli, F., Andreux, F., Portal, J.M. and Ange, A. “Influence of content and nature of organic matter on the structure of some sandy soils from West Africa”. Geoderma 56: 459-478, 1993.
Koolen, A.J. “The influence of a soil compaction process on subsequent soil tillage processes. A new research method”. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 26: 191 – 199, 1978.
Koolen, A.J. and Kuipers, H. “Agricultural Soil Mechanics”. Springer- Verlag, Berlin, 241 pp., 1983.
Ley, G.J., Mullins, C.E. and Lal, R. “The potential restriction to root growth in structurally weak tropical soils”. Soil Tillage Res. 33: 133-142, 1995.
Mullins, C.E., MacLeod, D.A., Northcote, K.H., Tisdall, J.M. and Young, I.M. “Hardsetting soils: behaviour, occurrence and management”. In: Lal, R., Stewart, B.A. (Eds.), Soil Degradation. Advances in Soil Science 11: 37-108, 1990.
Oades, J.M. “Soil organic matter and structural stability: mechanisms and implications for management”. Plant Soil 76: 310-337, 1984.
Oades, J.M. “The role of biology in the formation, stabilisation and degradation of soil structure”. In: L. Brussaard, M.J. Kooistra (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Methods of Research on Soil Structure/Soil Biota Interrelationships. pp. 377 – 400, 1993.
Ohu, J.O. “Peatmos influence on strength, hydraulic characteristics and crop production of compacted soils”. Ph.D. Thesis, Macdonald College, McGill University, pp. 227, 1985.
Ohu, J.O., Arku, A.Y. and Mamman, E. “Modeling the effect of organic materials incorporated into soils before load applications from tractor traffic”. Ife Journal of Technology 10 (1): 9 – 18, 2001.
Ojanuga, A.G. “Morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of Ife and Ondo areas”. Nigerian J. Sci. 9: 225-269, 1975.
Okusami, T.A. and Oyediran, G.O. “Slope-soil relationships on an aberrant toposequence in Ife area of southwestern Nigeria: variabilities”. Ife J. Agric. 7: 1 – 5, 1985.
Panayiotopoulos, K.P. “The effect of matric suction on stress-strain relation and strength of three Alfisols”. Soil Tillage Res. 39: 45 – 59, 1996.
Rahimi, H., Pazira, E. and Tajik, F. “Effect of soil organic matter, electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio on tensile strength of aggregates”. Soil Tillage Res. 54: 145-153, 2000.
SAS Institute. “SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, Version 5”. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA, 1987.
Simalenga, T.E. and Have, H. “Predicting soil moisture status and suitable field workdays under tropical conditions”. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America 25 (3): 9 – 12, 1994.
Soyelu, L.O., Ajayi, S.A., Aluko, O.B. and Fakorede, M.A.B. “Varietal differences in development of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings on compacted soils”. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 186: 157– 166. Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin, 2001.
Syers, J.K. and Craswell, E.T. “Role of organic matter in sustainable agricultural systems”. In: Lefroy, R.D.B., Blair, G.J., Craswell, E.T. (Eds.), Soil Organic Matter Management for Sustainable Agriculture. ACIAR Proceedings No. 56, Ubon, Thailand, August 24 – 26, 1994. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia, pp. 7 – 14, 1995.
Tisdall, J.M. and Oades, J.M. “Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils”. J. Soil Sci. 33: 141 – 163, 1982.