Engineering Properties of Monodora Tenuifolia Seeds as Influenced by Moisture Content
Some engineering properties of Monodora tenuifolia seeds were investigated as a function of moisture content. Within the moisture range considered (10.75–16.23% w.b), the major, intermediate and minor diameters of M. tenuifolia seeds were in the range of 14.57–14.65 mm, 9.93–10.17 mm and 7.43–7.90 mm, respectively. The geometric mean diameter, unit weight, volume, sphericity and terminal velocity were in the range of 10.21–10.53 mm, 0.43–0.48 g, 560.60–615.12 mm3, 0.70–0.72 and 10.6–12.87 m/s, respectively. Porosity, bulk and true density were in the range of 0.36–0.42, 0.49–0.52 g/cm3 and 0.82–0.85 g/cm3, respectively. The coefficient of static friction varied from 0.33 to 0.43 over four different structural surfaces and the angle of repose of the seed were between 26.65° and 31.37°. Specific heat values were in the range of 12.29–16.07 J/gK, 4.86–5.95 J/gK, and 3.34–4.14 J/gK, for the seeds and 10.43–16.28 J/gK, 4.85–5.66 J/gK, and 3.72–4.37 J/gK, for the kernels at temperatures 40, 60 and 80°C respectively. As moisture content increases, the rupture force, rupture energy and deformation of M. tenuifolia seed varied from 47.36–68.40 N, 0.03–0.06 J and 1.01–1.64 mm, during vertical loading and 326.80–469.44 N, 1.69–2.29 mm and 0.30–0.47 J, during horizontal loading respectively. The effect of moisture content on the properties considered was significant (p<0.05) and the regression models adequately expressed the relationships existing between the properties of M. tenuifolia seeds and moisture content.
Al-Mahasneh, M.A., Ababneh, H.A. and Rababah, T. Some engineering and thermal properties of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43: 1047–1052, 2008.
Akinci, I., Ozdemir F., Topuz A., Kabas O. and Canakci, M. Some physical and nutritional properties of Juniperus drupacea fruits. Journal of Food Engineering, 65: 325–331, 2004.
Ajayi, I.A., Aghanu, V.N., Antia, R.E. and Marchini, S.J. Evaluation of Monodora tenuifolia seed oil. Annals, Food Science and Technology, 13(2): 161–167, 2012.
Aktas, T., Polat, R. and Atay, U. Comparison of mechanical properties of some selected almond cultivars with hard and soft shell under compression loading. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 30: 773–789, 2007.
ASAE Standards. Moisture measurement of ungrounded grain and seeds (ASAE S 352.2 FEB 2003). American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2003.
Aviara N.A. and Haque M.A. Moisture dependence of thermal properties of sheanut kernel. Journal of Food Engineering, 47: 109–113, 2001.
Aviara, N.A., Haque, M.A. and Ogunjimi, L.A.O. Thermal properties of guna seed. International Agrophysics, 22: 291–297, 2008.
Aviara, N.A., Power, P.P. and Abbas, T. Moisture dependent physical properties of moringa oleifera seed relevant in bulk handling and mechanical processing. Industrial Crops and Products, 42: 96–104, 2013.
Aydin, C. Physical properties of hazel nut. Journal of Food Engineering, 60: 315–320, 2002.
Aydin, C. Physical properties of almond nut and kernel. Journal of Food Engineering, 60: 315–320, 2003.
Aydin, C. and Ozcan, M. Some physico-mechanical properties of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) Fruits. Journal of Food Engineering, 53: 97–101, 2002.
Balasubramanian D. Physical properties of raw cashew nut. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 78: 291–297, 2001.
Bamgboye A.I. and Adejumo O.I. Physical properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript 1154. Vol. XI. March, 2009.
Baryeh, E.A. Physical properties of bambara groundnuts. Journal of Food Engineering, 47: 321–326. 2001.
Bau¨mler, E., Cunibert, A., Nolasco, S. M. and Riccibene, I. C. Moisture dependent physical and compression properties of safflower seed. Journal of Food Engineering, 72: 134–140, 2006.
Bele, M.Y., Focho, D.A., Egbe, E.A. and Chuyong, B.G. Ethno botanical survey of the uses of Annonaceae around Mount Cameroon. African Journal of Plant Science, 5: 237–247, 2011.
Braga, G.C., Couto, S.M., Hara, T. and Neto, J.T.P.A. Mechanical behaviour of macadamia nut under compression loading. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 72: 239–245. 1999.
Burkill, H.M. The useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. pp. 120–121, 1985.
Burubai, W., Akor, A.J., Ighoni, A.H. and Puyate, Y.T. Some physical properties of Monodora myristica. International Agrophysics, 21: 123–126, 2007.
Coskuner, Y. and Karababa, E. Some physical properties of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Journal of Food Engineering, 78, 1067–1073, 2007.
Eggeling, W.J. The Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate (Revised and Enlarged by Ivan, R. D.). Government Printer, Entebbe Uganda, Crown Agents for the Colonies, London. pp xiii and 491, 2002.
Ekeanyawu, R.C. and Njoku, O.U. Biochemical studies on Nigerian Monodora tenuifolia seeds. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological sciences, 8(4): 257–267, 2013.
Ezenwali, M.O., Njoku, O.U. and Okoli, C.O. Studies on the anti-diarrheal properties of seed extract from Monodora tenuifolia. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Product, 2(4): 20–26, 2009.
Galedar, M. N., Mohtasebi, S. S., Tabatabaeefar, A., Jafari, A. and Fadaei, H. Mechanical behavior of pistachio nut and its kernel under compression loading. Journal of Food Engineering, 95: 499–504, 2009.
Gezer, I., Haciseferogullari, H. and Demir, F. Some physical properties of Hacihaliloglu apricot pit and kernel. Journal of Food Engineering, 56: 49–57. 2002.
Ince, A., Ugurluay, S., Guzel, E. and Ozcan, M.T. Bending and shearing characteristics of sunflower stalk residue. Biosystems Engineering, 92(2): 175-181, 2005.
Iwu, M.M. Evaluation of the antihepatotoxic activity of the biflavonoids of garciaria kola seeds. Journal of Ethno Pharmacology, 21(2): 127-138, 2002.
Jafari, S., Khazaei J., Arabhosseini, A. and Massah, J. Study on mechanical properties of sunflower seeds. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural University, 14(1): 1-8, 2011.
Kaleemullah, S. and Gunasekar, J.J. Moisture dependent physical properties of arecanut kernels. Biosystems Engineering, 82 (3): 331–338, 2002.
Kashaninejad, M., Mortazavi, A., Safekordi, A. and Tabil, L.G. Some physical properties of pistachio (Pistacia vera l.) nut and its kernel. Journal of Food Engineering, 72 (1): 30-38, 2006.
Kılıςkan, A. and Gu¨ner, M. Physical properties and mechanical behavior of olive fruits (Olea europaea L.) under compression loading. Journal of Food Engineering, 87: 222–228, 2008.
Konak, M., Carman, K. and Aydin, C. Physical properties of chickpea pea seeds. Biosystems Engineering, 82(1): 73-78, 2002.
Koyuncu, M.A., Ekinci K. and Savvan E. Cracking characteristics of walnuts. Biosystems Engineering 87(3): 305-31, 2004.
Manuwa S.I. and Muhammad H.A. Effects of moisture content and compression axis on mechanical properties of shea kernel. Journal of Food Engineering, 105: 144–148, 2011.
Mohsenin, N.N. Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials, 2nd ed. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, p. 889, 1986.
Njoku, U.O., Akah, P.A. and Okonkwo, C.O. Antioxidant activity of seed extract of Monodora tenuifolia (Annonaceae). International Journal of Basic Applied Sciences, 12: 80–87, 2012.
Ogunjimi, L.A.O., Aviara, N.A. and Aregbesola, O.A. Some engineering properties of locust bean seed. Journal of Food Engineering, 55: 95–99, 2002.
Ogunsina, B.S. Some engineering properties of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) seeds. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Technology, 22(1): 52–65, 2014.
Ogunsina B.S., Adegbenjo, A.O. and Opeyemi, O.O. Some physical, mechanical and compositional properties of sponge gourd seeds. International Journal of Food Properties, 13: 864–876, 2010.
Ogunsina, B. S. and Bamgboye, A. I. Fracture resistance of cashew nuts as influenced by pre-shelling treatment, International Journal of Food Properties, 16:7, 1452–1459, 2013.
Ogunsina, B.S., Koya, O.A. and Adeosun. O.O. Deformation and fracture of dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis) under uni-axial compressive loading. International Agrophysics, 22(3): 249–253. 2008.
Olajide, J.O., Ade-Omowaye, B.I.O. and Otunola, E.T. Some physical properties of shea kernel. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 76(4): 419–421, 2000.
Olaniyan, A.M. and Oje, K. Some aspects of the mechanical properties of shea nut. Biosystem Engineering, 81(4), 413–420. 2002.
Oloso, A.O. and Clarke, B. Some aspects of strength properties of cashew nuts. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 55: 27–43, 1993.
Omobuwajo, T., Akande, F.A. and Sanni, L.A. Selected physical, mechanical and aerodynamic properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds. Journal of Food Engineering, 40: 241–244, 1999.
Omobuwajo, T.O., Omobuwajo, O.R. and Sanni, L.A. Physical properties of calabash nutmeg (Monodora. myristica) seeds. Journal of Food Engineering, 57: 375–381, 2003
Omobuwajo T. O., L. A. Sanni, and J. O. Olajide. Physical properties of ackee apple (Blighia sapida) seeds. Journal of Food Engineering, 45(1): 43-48, 2000.
Oyelade O.J., Odugbenro, P.O., Abioye, A.O. and Raji, N.L. Some physical properties of African star apple (Chrysophyllum alibidum) seeds. Journal of Food Engineering, 67: 435-440, 2005.
Ozdemir. F. and Akinci, I. Physical and nutritional properties of four major commercial Turkish hazelnut varieties. Journal of Food Engineering, 63: 341–347, 2004.
Pliestic, S., Dobricevic, N.D. and Filipovic, Z.G. Physical properties of filbert nut and kernel. Biosystems Enginerring, 93(2): 173–178, 2006.
Pradhan, R.C., Naik, S.N., Bhatnagar, N. and Vijay, V.K. Moisture dependent physical properties of jatropha fruit. Industrial Crops Products, 29, 341–347, 2009.
Quattrocchj Umberto, F.L.S. World Dictionary of Plant Names. CRC Press. Boca Raton London, New York. Washington, D. C. pp. 1718–1719, 2000.
Razavi, S.M.A., Emadzadeh, B., Rafe, A. and Mohammad, A.A. The physical properties of pistachio nut and its kernel as a function of moisture content and variety: Part I. Geometrical properties. Journal of Food Engineering, 81(3): 209–217, 2007.
Tunde-Akintunde, T.Y. and Akintunde, B.O. Effect of moisture content and variety on selected physical properties of beniseed. Agricultural Engineering International. The CIGR E-Journal, Manuscript IX, FP 07 021, 2007.
Udeala, O.K. Preliminary evaluation of dika fat a new tablet lubricant. Journal Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 32: 6-9, 2000.